The best learning comes from recognising where learners are at. The model below presents students' typical progression throughout their studies. This was adapted from: Baxter Magolda, M. The Review of Higher Education, 15 3 , Dr Jennifer Moon considered the pedagogical implications of Magolda's epistemologies, for example, what you can reasonably expect from students at each stage in terms of performance and assessment tasks.
Read about this in ' We seek it here Theoretical discussion, literature review and critical thinking related activities are further developed in Moon's book Critical thinking: An exploration of theory and practice. Creative thinking is a highly desirable graduate attribute. It provides the perfect complement to critical thinking by challenging both staff and students to think 'outside the box'. You can also get teaching resources for creative thinking. Often associated primarily with Fine Arts, Design, Architecture and performance-based courses, creative thinking permeates all aspects of tertiary learning.
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By the end of Level A, students react to significant changes in their environment. Students generate ideas by using their senses to explore the characteristics of everyday objects and make choices between objects. Students begin to identify their personal preference and make choices about what they would like and dislike. Students are exposed to everyday problems and communicate their thinking through emotion responses.
They experience the learning strategy of repetition and beginning to react in everyday routine activities. Students communicate when faced with a problem.
In Level B, the curriculum focuses on developing students understanding of the world around them, how to learn and solve everyday problems. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure and understand the world and thinking.
Toward a Conceptual Model of Creative and Critical Thinking Processes
Students are exposed to thinking processes. By the end of Level B, students use their senses and cause and effect to explore and understand the world around them. Students generate ideas based on their experiences and make choices in structured situations. Students begin to become aware of their own point of view through their emotions. Students use learning strategies including repetition to participate in everyday routines and events. They use cause and effect to understand the world around them and solve problems.
In Level C, the curriculum focuses on developing the skills to reason, problem solve and learn. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure thinking and solve problems. Students explore how thinking can be made explicit. By the end of Level C, students answer simple questions about familiar events and topics.
Developing critical & creative thinking skills
They identify a familiar idea or experience with support and make choices from a range of options. Students can identify their own point of view. They use personal experience and examples to explain reasons. They connect present and past experience with support. Students predict what will happen next in a familiar routine. They practice some learning strategies including following a visual schedule.
Students demonstrate some problem-solving approaches when faced with common everyday issues. In Level D, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge and skills to express reasons, to problem solve and learn more effectively. Students become familiar with simple strategies to structure and improve thinking.
Students learn how thinking can be made explicit. By the end of Level D, students answer simple questions related to their own investigation, their feelings or concept. They identify and describe an event or scientific experiment. They generate ideas based on past experience and make choices based on their personal preferences.
Liesl Baum Combs, Katherine S. Cennamo, & Phyllis Leary Newbill
Students can identify some components of a point of view. They draw on previous experience to assist with their ideas, reasoning and when drawing a conclusion. Students actively participate in structured thinking activities. They practice some learning strategies to assist them to organise and demonstrate their ideas.
Students participate in problem solving activities and can articulate some possible solutions and their outcome in structured practical situations. From Foundation to Level 2, the curriculum focuses on developing the knowledge, skills and understanding to express reasoning and to problem solve and learn more effectively. Students become familiar with key vocabulary and simple strategies to structure and improve thinking. Students develop an understanding that thinking can be made explicit. By the end of Level 2, students use and give examples of different kinds of questions.
Students generate ideas that are new to them and make choices after considering personal preferences. Students identify words that indicate components of a point of view. They use reasons and examples for different purposes.